Saturday, April 25, 2009

Ergonomics as Part of a Company Safety & Health Program

As with other workplace safety and health issues, managers and employees both play key roles in developing and carrying out an ergonomics program.

Ergonomics programs should not be regarded as separate from those intended to address other workplace hazards. Aspects of hazard identification, case documentation, assessment of control options, and health care management techniques that are used to address ergonomic problems use the same approaches directed toward other workplace risks of injury or disease. Although many of the technical approaches described in this primer are specific to ergonomic risk factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders, the core principles are the same as efforts to control other workplace hazards.

The financial benefits of comprehensive safety and health programs have been well documented. Workplaces safe from hazardous conditions have lower costs due to decreased lost time, absenteeism, worker compensation premiums, etc. [Office of Technology Assessment 1995]. Ergonomics programs have been shown to be cost effective for similar reasons [McKenzie et al. 1985; Lapore et al. 1984]. In addition, ergonomic improvements may result in increased productivity and higher product quality [McKenzie et al. 1985; LaBar 1994; LaBar 1989].
Expressions of Management Commitment

Occupational safety and health literature stresses management commitment as a key and perhaps controlling factor in determining whether any work site hazard control effort will be successful [Cohen 1977; Peters 1989; Hoffman et al. 1995]. Management commitment can be expressed in a variety of ways. Lessons learned from NIOSH case studies of ergonomic hazard control efforts in the meat packing industry [Gjessing et al. 1994] emphasize the following points regarding evidence of effective management commitment:
Policy statements are issued that treat ergonomic efforts as furthering the company s goals of maintaining and preserving a safe and healthful work environment for all employees, expect full cooperation of the total workforce (managers, supervisors, employees, and support staff) in working together toward realizing ergonomic improvements, assign lead roles to designated persons who are known to "make things happen,"
give ergonomic efforts priority with other cost reduction, productivity, and quality assurance activities, and have the support of the local union or other worker representatives. 

Meetings between employees and supervisors allow full discussion of the policy and the plans for implementation. 

Goals are set that become more concrete as they address specific operations. Goals give priority to the jobs posing the greatest risk. 

Resources are committed to training the workforce to be more aware of ergonomic risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, providing detailed instruction to those expected to assume lead roles or serve on special groups to handle various tasks, 

bringing in outside experts for consultations about start-up activities and difficult issues at least until in-house expertise can be developed, and 

implementing ergonomic improvements as may be indicated. 

Release time or other compensatory arrangements are provided during the workday for employees expected to handle assigned tasks dealing with ergonomic concerns. 

Information is furnished to all those involved in or affected by the ergonomic activities to be undertaken. Misinformation or misperceptions about such efforts can be damaging: If management is seen as using the program to gain ideas for cutting costs or improving productivity without equal regard for employee benefits, the program may not be supported by employees. For example, management should be up-front regarding possible impacts of the program on job security and job changes. All injury data, production information, and cost considerations need to be made available to those expected to make feasible recommendations for solving problems. 

Evaluative measures track the results of the ergonomic efforts to indicate both the progress that has been made and the plans that need to be revised to overcome apparent problems. Reporting results of the program and publicizing notable accomplishments also emphasize the program s importance and maintain the interest of those immediately involved and responsible.
Benefits and Forms of Worker Involvement

Promoting worker involvement in efforts to improve workplace conditions has several benefits [Lawler III 1991; Cascio 1991; Schermerhorn et al. 1985; LaBar 1994; Noro and Imada 1991]. They include
enhanced worker motivation and job satisfaction, 

added problem-solving capabilities, 

greater acceptance of change, and 

greater knowledge of the work and organization.

Worker involvement in safety and health issues means obtaining worker input on several issues. The first input is defining real or suspected job hazards. Another is suggesting ways to control suspected hazards. A third involves working with management in deciding how best to put controls into place. One NIOSH experience of worker involvement with ergonomic issues is illustrated in Exhibit 2. 

Employee participation in an organization s efforts to reduce work-related injury or disease in general, and ergonomic problems in particular, may take the form of direct or individual input as described in Exhibit 2. A more common form is participation through a joint labor-management safety and health committee, which may be company-wide or department-wide in nature. Membership on company-wide committees includes union leaders or elected worker representatives, department heads, and key figures from various areas of the organization. At this level, typical committee functions consist of (1) discussing ways to resolve safety and health issues, (2) making recommendations for task forces or working groups to plan and carry out specific actions, and (3) approving use of resources for such actions and providing oversight. Committee make-up and function at the department level are more localized, since they are directed to issues specific to the operations found therein. Composition here can be limited to workers from the department or area engaged in similar jobs who, with their supervisors and select others (e.g., maintenance), propose ways for reducing work-related problems, including those posing injury or disease risks. Because of their smaller size and opportunities for closer contacts among members, such committees may be referred to as a work group [Davis and Newstrom 1985]. 

The department or area work group approach appears to be a popular one in addressing ergonomic problems. Factors identified in the literature that are influential to success in these efforts are identified in Table 2. Also shown in Table 2 are factors that can enhance direct worker inputs in workplace problem solving.

Who Should Participate?

Ergonomic problems typically require a response that cuts across a number of organizational units.
Hazard identification through job task analyses and review of injury records or symptom surveys, as well as the development and implementation of control measures, can require input from 
= safety and hygiene personnel, 

= health care providers, 

= human resource personnel, 

= engineering personnel, 

= maintenance personnel, and 

= ergonomics specialists. 

How best to fit these different players into the program could depend on the company s existing occupational safety and health program practices. Integrating ergonomics into the company s current occupational safety and health activities while giving it special emphasis may have the most appeal.

Simple Solutions for Lifting

NIOSH Publication No. 2007-122:
The Problem

On many construction sites, workers spend time lifting, carrying, holding, pushing, or pulling loads of material. Although it is common today to use mechanical devices for some of this work, a lot of materials are still handled manually. Sometimes it is not possible to use mechanical material handling devices due to site conditions.

If you lift and carry materials often or for long periods of time, there is constant stress on your back and shoulders. Eventually you may develop a serious muscle or joint injury. You are at risk if you often handle materials that are heavy and/or bulky, carry materials long distances, stoop downward to pick up heavy objects, or stretch upward while holding them. Your risk is higher if you twist your body when handling heavy items.
You may also develop an injury if you frequently push or pull heavy carts, dollies, or other transport equipment.
Injuries Disorders

Below are some of the injuries you may develop when you do manual material handling.
Back. Low back pain, and more serious musculoskeletal injuries to the back, can occur suddenly or develop over a period of time. For example, sudden quick movements, especially while handling heavy objects, may lead immediately to painful muscle strains. These strains may develop into serious injuries when the muscles are not allowed to heal and are exposed to additional stress.

Your spine runs from the top of your neck down to your lower back. It is made up of many bones called vertebrae, one below another. Between the vertebrae are joints and discs. These give your back flexibility so it can move. The discs are flexible because they have a substance like jelly inside.

When you lift, bend forward, stretch upward, or stretch outward, your back muscles work harder and the ligaments (long fibers supporting the back muscles) flex and stretch. The discs get squeezed. As they are squeezed, they can press on different parts of the spine, including nerves. This can cause back pain. If you bend forward over and over for months or years, the discs are weakened, which may lead to disc rupture (or "herniation").

Twisting your body while bending puts even more pressure on the discs, especially when you are exerting force to lift, push, or pull objects.

Shoulder and neck. Carrying even light loads above your shoulders may quickly leadto tired and sore neck and shoulder muscles. The risk of developing a more serious neck or shoulder problem increases when you do this work frequently or for long periods of time. Carrying or resting heavy objects on your shoulders may stress the shoulder and neck muscles and cause injury where the load contacts your body.

The muscles in your shoulder are connected to your arm by tendons. Between the tendons and bones are small sacs of fluid called bursa. They lubricate the shoulder so it moves easily. Continual stress on your shoulder can cause the bursa to get squeezed, swollen, stiff, and inflamed (bursitis). Bursitis can make it painful, or even impossible, to raise your arm.

Continual stress on the shoulder can also cause the shoulder tendons to become inflamed, resulting in pain (tendinitis).

Another common condition is tension neck syndrome. This is a type of muscle strain that can cause neck stiffness, muscle spasms, and pain in the neck or radiating from the neck. It affects the trapezius muscle, a large, thin muscle that runs from the upper back through the shoulder area to the neck. You may notice a tender "knot" in this muscle as well as stiffness and pain.
Arms, hands, and wrists. If you carry heavy objects with hard sharp edges, they can dig into your skin and injure the soft tissues in your hands. Or, if you carry objects that are hard to grip and hold, they may force your hand or wrist into awkward, stressful positions and cause disorders like tendinitis or carpal tunnel syndrome.

Some Solutions

Manual material handling is still common in construction, but it is possible to change how you do it so it is easier on your body. Solutions are available that can reduce the level of stress on your back, shoulder, neck, and other parts of your body. They may also reduce how often and how long your body is subjected to this stress. Many of the solutions can also eliminate other potential safety hazards and increase productivity.

The type of task and the site conditions will determine which solutions are best for you. A few possible solutions for specific material handling tasks are explained in Tip Sheets #10-13.

General solutions for doing material handling with less risk of injury include:

Change materials or work processes.
One of the most effective solutions may be to use materials, building components, or work methods that are less labor-intensive. There are alternative materials that can be handled without requiring a lot of physical strength, an awkward posture, or repetitive motion. For example, half-weight bags of Portland cement and lightweight concrete masonry blocks are currently available in many areas. An individual construction worker or subcontractor usually cannot make a decision to switch materials. Certain changes may require the approval of the building owner, architect, engineer, or general contractor.

Change tools and/or equipment. You can buy or rent material handling devices for all aspects of construction. Devices include special round handles and cushioned grips for carrying heavy objects; powered and non-powered carts and dollies for indoor or outdoor use; rolling carts to move sheet materials, pipes, or conduit; and stands and jacks to hold materials during installation.

Mechanical, hydraulic, and vacuum lifts are available in a variety of sizes and styles. Some allow relatively easy positioning of components and materials.

Ergonomic Guidelines for Manual Material Handling (DHHS/NIOSH Publication No. 2007-131) describes many different types of material handling and transport equipment. This booklet can be accessed at

In a few cases, cost and site conditions may restrict the use of such equipment.

Change work rules. For example, contractors can require that materials be stored at a convenient height off the ground and transported in most situations with mechanical devices. Improved planning of laydown areas and materials storage can minimize the number of times materials need to be moved.

Provide training and related programs. A policy of providing ergonomics training may help workers more quickly identify potential problems and find effective solutions.

Workplace exercise programs are popular in the construction industry. Although they may be a part of any effort to prevent muscle and joint disorders, exercise programs are not a substitute for other solutions. No studies have shown that they prevent injuries by themselves. Studies indicate only that exercise may have a short-term effect on reducing low back pain. There also is no evidence supporting the use of "body mechanics education" as an effective means to prevent back pain or serious back disorders. In edition, NIOSH does not recommend the use of back belts to prevent back injuries.

Training in the NIOSH lifting guidelines is especially important. NIOSH recommends that one person lift no more than 51 lbs. when the lifting can be done using the following "best practices":
- When you pick up or set down a load, don't reach more than 10 inches away from your body.
- Don't twist your body.
- Lift with your legs, not your back. Keep your back as straight as possible.
- Lift the load using a solid two-handed grip.

When lifting, holding, and positioning materials on a construction site you can't always follow these "best practices." In that case, the 51 lb. weight limit needs to be lowered. See the "Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation" (1997) for more information on how to use the guidelines. This information should be passed along to workers in training programs.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009


Five aspects of ergonomics

There are five aspects of ergonomics: safety, comfort, ease of use, productivity/performance, and aesthetics. Based on these aspects of ergonomics, examples are given of how products or systems could benefit from redesign based on ergonomic principles.
1. Safety - Medicine bottles: The print on them could be larger so that a sick person who may have bad vision (due to sinuses, etc.) can more easily see the dosages and label. Ergonomics could design the print style, color and size for optimal viewing.
2. Comfort - Alarm clock display: Some displays are harshly bright, drawing one’s eye to the light when surroundings are dark. Ergonomic principles could re-design this based on contrast principles.
3. Ease of use - Street Signs: In a strange area, many times it is difficult to spot street signs. This could be addressed with the principles of visual detection in ergonomics.
4. Productivity/performance - HD TV: The sound on HD TV is much lower than regular TV. So when you switch from HD to regular, the volume increases dramatically. Ergonomics recognizes that this difference in decibel level creates a difference in loudness and hurts human ears and this could be solved by evening out the decibel levels.
5. Aesthetics - Signs in the workplace: Signage should be made consistent throughout the workplace to not only be aesthetically pleasing, but also so that information is easily accessible.


Apakah anda pernah mendengar istilah “ergonomi”?. Istilah ini kadang-kadang merujuk pada “faktor manusia”. Tidak semua orang, benar-benar mengerti dan paham apa itu ergonomi dan bagaimana ergonomi tersebut mempengaruhi manusia. Tulisan ini sedikit banyaknya akan membantu untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini serta menjelaskan bagaimana ergonomi berperan dalam meningkatkan kesehatan dan keselamatan di tempat kerja anda. 

Ergonomi ditujukan pada siapa pun yang memiliki pekerjaan yang berhubungan dengan pemeliharaan dan perbaikan kesehatan dan keselamatan serta ditujukan juga pada siapapun yang menginginkan pemahaman yang mendalam mengenai ergonomi di tempat kerja. Beberapa contoh dari permasalahan ergonomi dan nasehat-nasehat yang cukup sederhana/efektif yang bisa dilakukan dan diterapkan sebagai jalan pemecahan permasalahan ergonomi yang dihadapi di tempat kerja. 

Apakah ergonomi itu? 

Ergonomi merupakan ilmu pengetahuan yang terkait dengan kecocokan/kesesuaian antara manusia dengan pekerjaannya. Ilmu ergonomi menempatkan manusia sebagai titik sentral dan memperhatikan kemampuan dan keterbatasan manusia dalam pekerjaannya. Ergonomi memastikan bahwa tugas-tugas, peralatan, informasi dan lingkungan harus menyesuaikan terhadap pekerja bukan sebaliknya. 

Untuk mengkaji kesesuaian antara seseorang dengan pekerjaannya, maka sudah seharusnya ahli ergonomi mempertimbangkan beberapa aspek, aspek tersebut adalah : 

• Pekerjaan yang sedang dilakukan dan tuntutan pekerja; 
• Peralatan yang digunakan (ukuran, bentuk, dan bagaimana peralatan tersebut cocok dengan tugasnya); 
• Informasi yang digunakan (bagaimana informasi tersebut dihadirkan, diakses, dan diubah); 
• Lingkungan fisik (Suhu, kelembaban, pencahayaan, kebisingan, getaran); dan lingkungan sosial (seperti kerjasama tim dan manajemen yang mendukung). 

Ahli ergonomi mempertimbangkan semua aspek fisik seseorang, seperti: 
• Ukuran dan bentuk tubuh; 
• Kebugaran dan kekuatan; 
• Postur; 
• Indera manusia, terutama penglihatan, pendengaran dll dan 
• Ketegangan pada otot-otot, jaringan, kegelisahan dll. 

Ahli ergonomi juga mempertimbangkan aspek psikologis seseorang, seperti: 
• Kemampuan mental; 
• Kepribadian; 
• Pengetahuan; dan 
• Pengalaman. 
Penilaian terhadap aspek manusia, pekerjaannya, peralatan, dan lingkungan kerja serta interaksi antara mereka, merupakan sebuah input bagi ahli ergonomi dalam mendisain sistem kerja aman, produktif dan efektif. 

Bagaimana ergonomi dapat meningkatkan kesehatan dan keselamatan? 

Menerapkan ergonomi di tempat kerja dapat: 
• Mengurangi potensi kecelakaan; 
• Mengurangi potensi terjadinya luka dan kesakitan; 
• Meningkatkan kinerja dan produktivitas. 

Ergonomi dapat mengurangi kemungkinan sebuah kecelakaan. Sebagai contoh, di dalam perancangan papan kontrol, seharusnya mempertimbangkan : 
• Lokasi saklar dan tombol, mungkin saja tanpa sengaja terkena alat lain sehingga saklar ataul tombol tersebut bisa hidup mati dan bisa juga tidak bekerja sesuai dengan urutan atau prosedur. Sehingga atas kejadian ini akan bisa menjurus kepada sebuah kecelakaan; 
• Pengharapan terhadap isyarat-isyarat dan kendali - kebanyakan orang menginterpretasikan hijau sebagai suatu kondisi yang aman. Jika lampu hijau digunakan untuk mengindikasikan adanya ‘sebuah peringatan atau bahaya’, maka mungkin saja hal itu akan diabaikan atau dilewatkan begitu saja; 
• Informasi yang berlebih – jika pekerja terlalu banyak diberikan informasi, mereka mungkin menjadi pusing, membuat kesalahan, atau panik. Di industri yang berbahaya, keputusan yang salah atau tindakan yang tidak sesuai prosedur akan menghasilkan malapetaka. 

Ergonomi dapat juga mengurangi kesakitan di tempat kerja, seperti sakit & nyeri pergelangan tangan, bahu dan punggung. Pertimbangkan tata letak dari kendali-kendali dan peralatan; seharusnya ditempatkan sesuai dengan keterbatasan manusia/pekerja. Peralatan tersebut harus ditempatkan pada para pekerja yang sering menggunakan dan pertimbangkan para pekerja mudah untuk menjangkau tanpa harus membungkuk, meregangkan dll. 

Kegagalan dalam mengamati prinsip-prinsip ergonomi mungkin punya hambatan yang serius, tidak hanya individu tapi keseluruhan organisasi. Banyak kecelakaan yang sudah dikenal sebelumnya dengan baik dapat dicegah jika ergonomi telah dipertimbangkan di dalam merancang pekerjaan yang dilakukan dan sistem dimana mereka bekerja. 

Apa jenis permasalahan tempat kerja yang bisa diselesaikan ergonomi? 

Ergonomi secara umum tidak hanya dikenal untuk pemecahan permasalahan secara fisik akan tetapi ergonomi juga berhubungan dengan aspek sosial dan psikologis manusia dan pekerjaannya. Sebagai contoh, beban kerja yang terlalu tinggi atau terlalu rendah, tugas-tugas yang tidak jelas, time pressure, pelatihan yang tidak cukup, dan dukungan sosial lemah, semua itu bisa berdampak negatif terhadap orang dan pekerjaan yang mereka lakukan. 

Contoh-contoh berikut menyoroti sebagian permasalahan ergonomi yang khas ditemukan di tempat kerja : 

Peralatan layar display 

• Penempatan layar yang kurang baik, misalnya terlalu tinggi,terlalu rendah, menutupi, jauh dari pekerja dll; 
• Mouse ditempatkan terlalu jauh dan memerlukan peregangan untuk menggunakannya; 
• Kursi yang tidak disesuaikan dengan keterbatasan yang ada pada pekerja, misalnya ketinggian kursi dan kursi tidak memberikan kenyamanan bagi pekerja; 
• Layar silau yang berasal dari jendela atau lampu, meningkatkan risiko kelelahan mata; 
• Perangkat Keras dan perangkat lunak tidak cocok untuk tugas atau orang yang menggunakannya sehingga menyebabkan frustrasi dan kesusahan; 
• Tidak cukup waktu untuk beristirahat atau perubahan-perubahan dari aktivitas. 
Permasalahan tersebut di atas mengakibatkan kekeliruan-kekeliruan dan produktivitas rendah, stress, radang mata, sakit kepala dan sakit atau nyeri lain. 

Penanganan secara manual 

• Beban yang terlalu berat dan atau besar sekali ukurannya; 
• Beban diangkat dari lantai dan! atau di atas bahu-bahu; 
• Pengangkatan benda yang berulang dan frekuensinya sering; 
• Pelaksanaan tugas membutuhkan postur yang canggung atau tidak benar, seperti lenturan atau puntiran; 
• Beban tidak bisa digenggam dengan baik; 
• Pekerjaan dilakukan pada lantai yang tidak seimbang, basah atau miring; 
• Tugas atau pekerjaan dilaksanakan di bawah tekanan waktu dan terlalu sedikit waktu untuk beristirahat. 

Kemungkinan permasalahan-permasalahan di atas mengakibatkan cidera fisik seperti sakit punggung (LBP) atau cidera pada lengan, tangan, atau jari tangan. Permasalahan tersebut juga berperan terjadinya risiko jatuh, tergelincir dll. 

Stress yang berkaitan dengan kerja 

• Tuntutan kerja terlalu tinggi atau terlalu rendah; 
• Dukungan lemah dari manajemen dan/atau rekan kerja; 

Kontrol yang lemah terhadap risiko sehingga menyebabkan stress yang berkaitan dengan kerja dan pada akhirnya sakit serta mengurangi kinerja dan produktivitas. 

Pengaturan hari kerja 

• Waktu pemulihan yang tidak cukup antara shift; 
• Penjadwalan shift yang kurang sesuai; 
• Karyawan bekerja melebihi jam kerja normal. 

Permasalahan-permasalahan ini menyebabkan kelelahan, dan kemungkinan besar meningkatkan kecelakaan dan kesakitan. 

Bagaimana mengidentifikasi permasalahan ergonomi? 

Ada banyak cara permasalahan ergonomi dapat dikenali atau diidentifikasi, yakni melalui pengamatan dan daftar periksa yang merupakan sebagai alat untuk melakukan kajian risiko secara kuantitatif. 

Idealnya, ada beberapa pendekatan seharusnya digunakan : 
• Bicara dengan karyawan dan karyawan mengungkapkan pandangannya, antara lain mengenai pengetahuan penting yang dipunyai oleh karyawan tentang pekerjaan yang mereka lakukan, setiap permasalahan yang mereka mempunyai, dan dampaknya terhadap kesehatan, keselamatan, dan kinerja mereka; 
• Penilaian sistem kerja dengan meminta pertanyaan seperti : 
Î Apakah pekerja dalam posisi yang nyaman? 
Î Apakah pekerja mengalami ketidaknyamanan/kegelisahan termasuk nyeri, kelelahan, atau stress? 
Î Apakah peralatan sesuai dengan pekerja, mudah digunakan terpelihara dengan baik? 
Î Apakah pekerja puas dengan pengaturan kerjanya? 
Î Apakah sering mengalami kesalahan kerja? 
Î Apakah ada tanda-tanda rancangan peralatan tidak sesuai atau tidak cukup dengan kenyataan yang ada, seperti plester di jari tangan pekerja atau ‘pads’ pelindung yang dibuat sendiri yang terbuat dari tisu atau busa? 
• Pengujian keadaan melingkupi seringnya terjadi kesalahan dan insiden. Menggunakan laporan kecelakaan untuk mengidentifikasi rincian peristiwa dan kemungkinan penyebabnya; 
• Pencatatan dan memperhatikan ketidakhadiran karena sakit dan tingkat perpindahan staf. Angka tinggi ini mungkin diakibatkan oleh permasalahan yang telah terdaftar sebelumnya dan/atau ketidakpuasan di tempat kerja. 

Apa yang bisa dilakukan jika sudah mengenali permasalahan ergonomi? 

• Mencari kemungkinan penyebab dan mempertimbangkan kemungkinan pemecahannya. Sebuah perubahan kecil diperlukan untuk membuat tugas lebih mudah dan lebih aman untuk dilaksanakan. Sebagai contoh: 
- Menyediakan kursi yang tingginya bisa disesuaikan sehingga individu/operator dapat bekerja dengan ketinggian kursi yang lebih disukai; 
- Membuang benda-benda yang berada di bawah meja untuk menciptakan ruang yang cukup untuk kaki; 
- Menaikkan platform untuk membantu operator menjangkau papan control yang penempatannya kurang tepat; 
- Merubah pola kerja bergilir dan; 
- Memperkenalkan rotasi kerja diantara tugas-tugas yang berbeda untuk mengurangi kelelahan secara fisik dan mental; 
• Bicara dan bertemu dengan karyawan untuk mendapatkan saran-saran mereka dan membicarakan kemungkinan pemecahannya. Libatkan karyawan mulai proses awal, ini akan membantu semua pihak untuk menerima setiap perubahan usulan. 
• Pastikan bahwa segala perubahan dievaluasi dengan baik oleh para pekerja yang melakukan pekerjaannya. Berhati-hatilah bahwa sebuah perubahan untuk memecahkan sebuah masalah tidak diciptakan untuk menimbulkan masalah baru. 
• Pemahaman yang baik terhadap ergonomi menciptakan pemahaman yang baik secara ekonomik. Keterlibatan ergonomi tidak memerlukan biaya tinggi, dan dapat menghemat biaya dalam jangka panjang dengan melalui pengurangan cedera dan absensi kerja. 

Pemahaman ergonomi di tempat kerja kemungkinan dapat mengurangi sakit, nyeri, dan stress di tempat kerja dan meningkatkan kepuasan kerja. Solusi ergonomi dapat dilakukan dengan cara yang sederhana dan langsung dapat dilihat hasilnya, misalnya saja perubahan yang kecil pada kursi, yakni mengubah tinggi kursi sesuai dengan keterbatasan yang ada pada pekerja. 

Pengirim : Direktorat Bina Kesehatan Kerja